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      您現在的位置: 網站首頁 - 新聞中心 - 智慧城市的探索與實踐詳細信息

      智慧城市的探索與實踐

      發布時間:2013.02.22 新聞來源:中國建設報 瀏覽次數:

      智慧城市,是基于物聯網、云計算、人工智能、數據挖掘等技術而形成的一種新型信息化的城市形態,它被認為是繼工業化、電氣化和信息化之后的“第四次浪潮”。它讓城市越來越聰明,也讓我們的生活越來越信息化,數字醫療、汽車信息自動傳感、智能交通等電影中的情景,都有望變成現實。

      從醞釀到落地

      智慧城市的創建步伐是快速的。從2012年12月3日,國家智慧城市試點創建工作會議召開,明確了智慧城市的建設思路和指標體系、智慧城市試點申報方法程序,鼓勵有條件地區積極申報。2013年1月29日,國家智慧城市試點創建工作會議召開,公布首批智慧城市試點。據了解,首批國家智慧城市試點共90個,其中地級市37個,區(縣)50個,鎮3個,經過3到5年的創建期后,住房和城鄉建設部將組織評估將其分為一星、二星和三星。在資金方面,2013年1月14日,住房和城鄉建設部和國家開發銀行簽訂了800億元的授信合同,支持智慧城市的建設。未來還將在這一領域大力引入社會資本。

      屬性、評價與升級

      住房和城鄉建設部有關領導指出,這次試點有很大部分屬于生態新城改造和既有城市生態化改造。

      智慧城市是實現集約、智能、綠色、低碳、發展的一步棋。集約是指增強資源的集約力,提高城市的運行效率,能源、空間資源都得到節約;智能是指使城鎮智慧化、精細化、可視化,構建智能化的百姓生活場所;綠色是指實現對自然低沖擊的發展,使生態環境有所改善;低碳是指降低能源消耗,最大限度地推廣可再生能源。他指出,智慧城市建設應把握好生態衛星城、綠色交通、污水處理與防災減災、安全供熱、可再生能源與建筑的一體化和建筑節能改造、綠色小城鎮和宜居村莊建設、空氣污染治理等重要方面。住房和城鄉建設部領導還對北京、上海建設生態衛星城提出了要求:可再生能源占20%以上,綠色建筑達到80%以上,生態多樣性保持不變,綠色交通(包括步行、自行車、公共交通)占60%以上,每半年的碳排放比一般城市低50%。

      積極探索、實踐

      如何推進智慧城市建設?智慧城市的核心理念是用人的智慧和科學技術智慧地規劃和管理城市、智慧地配置城市資源。住房和城鄉建設部建筑節能與科技司有關負責人表示,現在的目標,第一是讓老百姓自己直接能感受到生活更加的便利、安全。第二是從政府的層面能夠更加科學地決策,更加高效地管理,更加精細化地服務。第三是企業的角度,讓公司感覺這是一個創業的地方,能夠創造財富的。

      垃圾、征地矛盾、能源緊張、水資源短缺等等問題都制約著經濟、社會和城鎮化的進程,智慧城市建設就是有效應對這類問題。

      針對華北地區持續的霧霾問題,住房和城鄉建設部有關領導表示,用智慧系統進行聯合分析、現場監測、過程控制、預警預報,而且要系統地集成反映來解決PM2.5的問題,有多少是揚塵帶來的,有多少是機動車排放的,有多少是暖洋洋的負離子供暖系統帶來的,都應該有量,而且跟氣候預報緊密結合。再如機動車管理問題,放任機動化就是小車放開、隨便跑隨便賣。要轉向集約式的機動化,來引領集約式的城鎮化。只有集約型的機動化,才有集約型的城鎮化。

      切忌盲目跟風

      筆者認為,智慧城市代表了未來城市發展的新趨勢,但是,在全國數百個城市一哄而上、爭搶智慧城市的市場蛋糕時,我們最需要做的,其實是對這股建設熱潮的冷思考。參與建設的地方政府應清醒地意識到,智慧城市的前景雖然很美好,但智慧城市建設在技術、資金、管理等方面都還面臨諸多難題,不能不顧城市自身實際盲目跟風。

      當前的智慧城市建設熱潮,在以下幾個方面存在隱憂:其一,各地城市建設的基礎參差不齊,如果缺乏頂層設計層面的科學規劃和統籌布局,將造成大量低水平重復建設;其二,缺乏完整科學的標準體系,為不同城市的信息互通和數據共享埋下了隱患,最終可能只建出一大批不能互聯互通的信息孤島;其三,智慧城市建設周期較長,地方政府面臨財政負擔和融資壓力。

      地方政府的決策者應結合經濟發展水平、城市功能規劃、地理環境特點等因素綜合考量,推進智慧城市的建設。

      本文共分 1
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